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    Lesson Information
     
 
    Outcomes and Standards
    Objectives
    Assessment
     
   
    Resources
    Materials
    Vocabulary
    Procedures
    Day Plans
    Enrichment Options
     
   
    Teacher Reflection
     



Stage 1
Identify Desired Results


Catchy Title: Kenya is Where I Call Home
Theme/Topic of Lesson: Multiculturalism and Cultural diffusion: Cultural Identity of
Time Commitment: Four 45-minute periods
Subject Area(s):
    Language Arts
    Social Studies - History
Grade Level(s): 6,7,8
Standards Alignment:
Class Challenge Question: How does cultural diffusion shape a nation's sense of culture and identity?

Stage 2
Determine Acceptable Evidence


Reading
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students examine, construct and extend the meaning of a variety of self-selected and assigned text (traditional and electronic) by applying a range of reading strategies and analytic techniques.
 
Writing
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students produce informational, practical, persuasive, and narrative writing that demonstrates an awareness of audience, purpose and form using stages of the writing process as needed (i.e., pre-writing, drafting, revising, editing and publishing).
 
Geography
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students will use geographic concepts and processes to examine the role of culture, technology, and the environment in the location and distributions of human activities and spatial connections throughout time.
 
Peoples of the Nation and World
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students will understand the diversity and commonality, human interdependence, and global cooperation of the people of the United States and the world both through a multicultural and historical perspective.
 
Peoples of the Nation and World
(6-8)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will understand the diversity and commonality, human interdependence, and global cooperation of the people of the United States and the world both through a multicultural and historical perspective.
Maryland State Indicators
7.1.8.4
analyze how the environment and cultural diffusion influence the development of the United States and other cultures (MLO 6.4.)
Peoples of the Nation and World
(6-8)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will understand the diversity and commonality, human interdependence, and global cooperation of the people of the United States and the world both through a multicultural and historical perspective.
Maryland State Indicators
7.1.8.1
analyze characteristics that are used to organize people into cultures (MLO 6.1.)
Use technology tools
(Gr. 9-12)
 ISTE Technology Performance Indicators
Use technology tools

Use technology tools and resources for managing and communicating personal/professional information (e.g., finances, schedules, addresses, purchases, correspondence).



Learning Objectives:

The Students will:
  • define and give examples of cultural diffusion.
  • discuss the contributions made by different ethnic groups in Kenya.
  • explain how geography contributes to Kenya's national culture.
  • describe how African immigrants have adapted and reacted to American
    culture.
  • create a visual representation of Kenya's cultural diversity.

Assessment
The teacher will use a variety of assessments. Student participation in
class discussion will be used to determine level of understanding. Students
will complete   Internet Research Worksheet handout 3 to demonstrate
their understanding of Internet resources on Kenya. Individual and group
performance on the final project will be measured by the 
Kenyan/American Community Center Group Poster Rubric handout 4.
This rubric provides guidelines for assessing written work as well as
organization and group collaboration.


Stage 3
Plan Learning Experiences


Resources

SoftwareMicrosoft Word
  http://www.microsoft.com
Print Materials"One Hundred Percent American." Linton, Ralph. American Mercury 40 1937: 427-429
See Internet sites listing above.
Ralph Linton's article appears in several print sources, including the one listed above.
One way to access this source is via the Internet at the following address. Since copyright
laws may prohibit distribution of the article, teacher may want to direct their students to
the site listed above in order to read the article. If this is not possible, teacher may want to
read the article to the students instead.
Video(s)Voyageur Experience in Global Geography: "Kenya: A National Identity and Unity" This video gives an overview of Kenyan history, geography and culture. Check MPT
schedules for broadcast dates by going to the MPT IT page at
http://www.mpt.org/learningworks/teachers/video/voyagerexperience.shtml
or use AIT Catalog Online to purchase a copy
http://www.ait.net/Merchant2/merchant.mv?Screen=CTGY&Store_Code=AC&Cat
egory_Code=443
Internet SitesNTTI Electronic Learning Community This Electronic Learning Community is the gateway to online
resources, a discussion board, virtual chat and loads of links. The
programming for this ELC is designed by the Center for
Technology in Education, The Johns Hopkins University.
  http://cte.jhu.edu/ELC/
A Hotlist on Kenya This site provides links for all of the following Internet resources. Bookmark this link and students will be able to access all of the following sites for their research.
  http://kenyahotlist.cjb.net/
Wonders of the African World This site provides multiple resources on African history and culture. Focuses on
African regions. Provides primary sources, children's activities, video clips from
the PBS Wonders of Africa series, cultural close-ups, lessons in Swahili, and
historical references.
  http://www.pbs.org/wonders/
The Maasai: People of the Cattle The Maasi are one of Kenya's many ethnic groups. This site provides information
on Maasai culture, society and history. It also features photographs, traditional
stories and links.
  http://www.geocities.com/olmorijo/
The Museum for African Art This site offers links to America's most prominent African Art Museums.
  http://www.africanart.org/html/museum_links.htm
The Story of Africa This BBC web-site examines African history from early history to the
independence movement. Site includes detailed histories, timelines, photos, video
clips and links to other sources.
  http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/index.shtml
Kenyalogy This site features travel information, current events, a gallery of beautiful photos
of the natural environment, and links to other relevant sites.
  http://www.kenyalogy.com/indexi.html
Africa This link will connect directly to the Photo Scope page of this PBS site. Check the
slide shows on Urban Africa, Environment and Women. Go to the home page of
this website and access information about Africa's regions, take a virtual safari,
listen to African music and country profiles. Be sure to look for information on
Africa's Swahili Coast.
  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/africa/photoscope/index.html
World Heritage: Africa Revisited: Swahili Culture This UNESCO site provides photo essays on Swahili culture.
The Africa Revisited exhibit also includes photo essays from other regions of
Africa. The World Heritage web-site identifies international sites noted for
historic and cultural importance.
  http://whc.unesco.org/exhibits/afr_rev/africa-k.htm
Guggenheim Museum This link connects directly to examples of artwork from Eastern Africa. It is part
of the Guggenheim Museum Africa: Art of a Continent exhibit.
  http://artnetweb.com/guggenheim/africa/east.html
Language Gives information on Swahili culture ranging from food to stories
  http://www.pbs.org/wnet/africa/explore/swahili/swahili_overview.html
Hassan Ali's Home Page This site teaches basic Swahili phrases and has links to relevant sites on African culture.
  http://www.glcom.com/hassan/swahili.html
Kiswahili Web at UPENN This site features lessons in Kiswahili vocabulary. Lessons include visual images
with the vocabulary.
  http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/plc/kiswahili/
Ethnologue This site offers a large data-base of the languages of the world. Visitors can
access information about specific languages or can choose a country profile that
details all of the languages spoken within a specific country.
  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=Kenya
The Kamusi Project This site created by Yale University includes information on Swahili, slide show
on East Africa, several links to related sites, and an English-Swahili dictionary.
  http://www.yale.edu/swahili/
IPS World News This is an article that discusses how Kenyan immigrants try to maintain their
connection to their native home.
  http://www.oneworld.net/ips2/july99/19_13_091.html
Ralph Linton's One Hundred Percent American This site features one version of sociologist Ralph Linton's famous essay on
cultural diffusion.
  http://www.ripon.edu/academics/global/american.html

Materials
Per class
  • VCR and monitor
  • Video Projection Device
  • The Voyageur Experience in Global Geography  "Kenya" video
Per student team/group of 4
  • One sheet of poster board
  • Magic Markers
  • Construction Paper
  • Scissors
  • Glue Stick
  • Rulers
  • Optional: 3 ½ inch floppy for saving class work
Per Student
  • Labeled World Map
  • Computer with Internet access
  • Community Center Handout  (View)
  • Community Center Poster  (View)
  • Kenya Internet Research  (View)
  • Video Answers  (View)
  • Video Notes  (View)

Vocabulary
  • Cultural Diffusion - the process by which culture is spread between groups
  • Cultural Diversity - refers to the different cultures and groups that contribute to a single society
  • Immigrant - a person who moves to a new country to set up permanent residence
  • Emigrant - a person who leaves his/her homeland
  • Colonialism - the domination of a foreign power over a group of people
  • Ethnic Group - a group of people who share cultural or national qualities that distinguish them from other groups in society
  • Mutual Aid Societies - a group of people who pool together resources (including financial) to assist one another in times of need

Procedures
This lesson is designed to help students recognize the significance of cultural diffusion in
the shaping of societies. The role of cultural diffusion will be highlighted by case studies
of Kenya and the United States. Prior to instruction, teacher should check students
understanding of the vocabulary through an informal class discussion. If necessary,
review the meaning of the terms with the students. The learning activities alternate
between teacher-led discussion, individual work and cooperative work. Technology is
integrated throughout the lesson. Video clips will be used to inform the students about
Kenya's unique geography and history as well as concerns of Kenyan immigrants to the
United States. An LCD projector, if available, can be used to project the Internet video
clip. The students will construct meaning by using Internet resources to learn more about
Kenya's heritage. Individually, students will demonstrate their understanding of the
material by developing a text box and visual for an exhibit on Kenya's culture. Students
will work collectively to design a layout for an exhibit room on Kenya's culture. If
possible, this lesson should be completed with a mini-lab or computer lab so that each
student will have one computer with Internet access. If this is unavailable, students can be
teamed together for computer use. Teacher can accommodate special needs students by
pairing them with more able students. The teacher may also want to consider assigning
certain sections of the project for homework or giving an extension to special needs
students.  The Kenyan/American Community Center Project can be modified to meet the
writing skills of the class. The teacher could consider requiring outlines instead of
paragraphs or bulleted lists of text. Teacher should make sure that within each group,
there is at least one skilled computer user to help those who are less proficient with
technology.
1: Cultural Diffusion From the Kenyan Point-Of-View
Daily Challenge Question: In today's lesson, students will learn the meaning of cultural diffusion and give examples of cultural diffusion in American society.

Set-up Directions:

Prior to the first day's lesson, the teacher will need to find a copy of Ralph Linton's "One
Hundred Percent American." (See notes in the Materials section.) Teacher should also
photocopy reproducible labeled world maps, and Voyageur Experience Video Notes
handout 1 for each student. It will also be necessary to access a LCD projector or
television and a VCR. The teacher should review the video to become familiar with the
content.

Note: The teacher should set the video to the scene that shows the sign of Braeburn
school and the narrator says, "We have been invited." 



Teacher Presentation & Motivation:

Begin the class by stating that for the next few days we will examine how different ethnic
groups contribute to a society. We will start with our own country and then focus
specifically on Kenya's culture. First of all, ask students to identify items or ideas that are
considered to be American in culture. (Possible answers include: baseball, Hollywood
movies, blue jeans, cowboys, individualism, hotdogs, etc.) After students brainstorm
answers, distribute world maps and read them the essay by Ralph Linton, an
anthropologist. Ask students: What do they think Linton's main idea is? (Possible answer:
things we typically think of as American have roots in other cultures) Point out that it is
the process of cultural diffusion (spreading of ideas and goods) that shapes our culture.
You may also want to have students use a map to trace the origin of some of the goods
mentioned in the essay to the United States.   Conduct a Think/Pair/Share on the question
of how ideas spread from one culture to another. (Think/Pair/Share is a three step process
of brainstorming information. In the first step the teacher poses a question and asks
students to reflect on the question individually. In step two, students work in pairs to
exchange information and increase their understanding of the topic. In the final step, the
entire class shares responses as the teacher or a recorder writes the information on the
board. Teacher should allow approximately two minutes per step.) Ask students to think
of what factors lead to the spread of one culture to another. Then tell students to take two
minutes to discuss their ideas with and neighbor. Share the ideas as a class. Some factors
that they should identify include: travel (tourism: tourists bring products and ideas back
home with them- sometimes influencing the culture of the place they visit) trade
(exchange of goods from one place to another. War (conquered nation and conquering
nation) immigration (immigrants preserve heritage and introduce new customs to society
as well as adopting new traditions)

You may also want to ask students to give historical/modern examples of each of the
aforementioned factors:

1) travel: Some countries feature modernized resorts to appeal to tourists.
2) conquest: Alexander the Great of Ancient Greece conquered Persia and parts of
India. As he spread Greek culture, he built cities and blended Western and Eastern
cultures to form the Hellenistic Culture.
3) Genghis Khan and the Mongols conquered China and adopted many Chinese
customs and traditions.
4) Arabs traded as part of the Saharan trade route and Indian Ocean and spread Islam
to Africans.
5) Colonization of America brought several cultures together including Africa,
Native American and European. Not only were new products exchanged across an
ocean, but relationships between the groups led to new ethnic groups.
6) Immigration (both forced and voluntary) has brought different ethnic groups
together. Regions like Chinatown and Little Italy help the immigrants to preserve
heritage while also influencing the dominant culture.



Activity 1 - Clips from the Voyageur Experience
Point out the U.S. is not the only country known for its cultural diversity. Kenya has over
42 different ethnic groups. State that the Voyageur Experience Video will discuss the
contributions of various ethnic groups and geographic features of Kenya. Distribute
Voyageur Experience: Video Notes handout 1.  Divide the class into five groups:
traditional societies, Swahili culture, geographic influence, European influence and
modern influences.  Direct each group to record information that relates to their assigned
topic and to be prepared to share information at the end of the film.
Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

The focus for media interaction for this activity is for students to identify the different
factors that have shaped Kenya's culture.  Students will complete segments of the
Voyageur Experience: Video Notes handout 1.

 Some of the film dialogue goes by quickly. Direct the students to raise their hands
anytime they need to pause the film to ask a question or record information. If class needs
frequent prompts to stay focused, use the Teacher's Video Script and call on students to
summarize segments in their own words. If class stays focused without prompts, wait
until the end of all of the clips to go over answers to the webbing activity on the
Voyageur Experience: Video Notes handout 1.

Start: Sign of Braeburn School
     Narrator says, "We have been invited to Braeburn school"

STOP: Narrator back on screen. Narrator states, "After historical background?"

FAST FORWARD to image of students at river with tour guide. Student in hat asks,
"How do people and animals cohabit" hit PLAY

STOP: Geography teacher tells students, "Then they will learn that wild animals are very
useful"

At the end of the video, allow students to review their notes with their assigned group. 



Activity 2 - Culminating Activity
 Based on the Voyageur Experience: Video Notes handout 1, create a web diagram on the
board (or use an overhead transparency of the Voyageur Experience: Video Notes
handout 1) that highlights the contributions of each of the following aspects of Kenyan
culture: geographic influence, Swahili, traditional, European/colonial and modern. Each
group should review their assigned topic with the rest of the class, adding to the class
web as they discuss their topic.  Use the Voyageur Experience: Video Notes answer sheet
to check students understanding and if necessary add to the student web.

Wrap Up:

Ask students to complete the following open-ended sentence. Call on individual students
to share responses and encourage each student to offer a new response:

Kenya's culture is...
Possible responses include (there is no one correct response) influenced by many factors,
complex, shaped by geography, changing over time, interesting, different, multicultural,
modern, etc.

At the end of today's activity, give students a preview for the next class. Tomorrow,
students will listen to interviews from African immigrants and will work in groups to
learn more about the various cultures that shape Kenya's society.


2, 3: From Kenya to the US
Daily Challenge Question: Which cultural values and traditions do you think Kenyan immigrants might want to celebrate in a community center?

Set-up Directions:
Prior to class, the teacher will need to reserve a computer lab for students and the LCD
projector. The teacher should also determine placement of students for their cooperative
learning activity.  This project will work well with heterogeneous placements that
represent a variety of artistic, writing and organization skills. Teacher will need to have
copies of the following hand-outs: African/American Video Notes handout 2a, Internet
Research Worksheet handout 3, Kenyan/American Community Center Group Project
Worksheet handout 2b, and  Kenyan/American Community Center Group Poster Rubric
handout 4. Teacher should bookmark the following A Hotlist on Kenya at
http://kenyahotlist.cjb.net/ for easy student access of resources.
In addition to providing hard copies of Internet Research Worksheet handout 3, if
possible the teacher should save a copy of the assignment on a student server or teacher
webpage. This will allow students to type information directly onto the worksheet and
print out the response or save the response on the student server or on a 3 ½ inch floppy.

Teacher Presentation & Motivation:
Start class with the following reflection questions: Have you ever had an experience in
which you were new to a group? How did you respond to the situation? Was there anyone
or anything that helped you? Allow students to share their experiences if they wish.
Students may point out both the frustration of not knowing anyone and the excitement of
new opportunities.  They may remember a classmate or a teacher who helped them to
adjust. Point out that immigrants face similar frustrations when they enter a new country.
State that the class will watch a short clip about African immigrants who agreed to be
interviewed to share their frustrations and reactions to living as immigrants in the United
States.

Activity 1 - Culture Shock?
The teacher will show a video clip from Internet site, Research Channel,
http://www.researchchannel.org/program/displayevent.asp?rid=1528
 Project this Internet video clip on the screen with a LCD projector. (The clip is six
minutes, allow 10-15 minutes for discussion of the Focus For Media Interaction
Questions)

Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

The focus for media interaction for this task is to identify the challenges that immigrants
face and list ways that immigrants learn to adapt to their new environment.

Prior to showing the clip, ask students to create three columns in their notebook. In the
left column ask students to record their predictions about what challenges they think
Africans in America might face. Ask a couple of volunteers to share their predictions.
Tell the students that as they view the film, to fill in the middle column with the
challenges the immigrants said that they face. In the right-hand column, students should
list factors that help immigrants to adjust to their new environment.

SHOW film in its entirety.
At the end of the film, ask students to share the information that they filled in the
columns. If students had difficulty finding information, rewind and replay parts of the
film. The following script provides clues on where certain details may be found in the
film.

Why is it hard being away from home? (Answers: people don't accept you, you miss your
culture)
In video, see the woman sweeping kitchen floor and listen for the sound of singing in
background
End at second interview- man on couch says "You find yourself as if you are out in the
space."

Where do the immigrants work? Where did they work in their native homes? (Immigrants
work in many different places, but sometimes have to take low paying jobs. In their own
countries they held jobs in banks and other industries)
Video piece-look for  the man on the couch saying, "Because when I was in Africa."
End with woman sweeping the restaurant.

How do these immigrants perceive American culture and what do they miss from their
own homes?
Video piece has a woman in dress saying "here time is so important.(Answers:
Americans emphasize time more. Americans are rich, but stressed out. They cherish the
friendliness of people in their former country.)

 What role does religion play in the lives of the immigrants?
(Answer: Some immigrants came over to study religion in the United States. Church
provides a sense of community.)
In video, start with the man on couch stating, "We have many who?..."
End  with the woman on the couch stating, "This is my home."

 What reactions have the immigrants had to American people?
(Answer: Some immigrants point out that they feel like outsiders. Some note tension and
miscommunication exists between Africans and African Americans)
This piece has the man on the couch stating, "Americans are generous?"
End with the end of the film (where there is singing and images from a wedding.)

Ask the students: What can immigrants do to make their adjustment to new society
easier? (can form community groups, go to school, work)

Point out that some immigrant groups have helped new immigrants succeed and adjust by
creating mutual aid societies (lend money and assistance) and community groups. In the
next activity, students will work together to design a community center for Kenyan
immigrants.



Activity 2 - Internet Research

Distribute the Kenyan/American Community Center handout 2b and go over the
assignment with the students. Divide class into pre-determined groups.

Students will work together to create a plan for a community center for Kenyan
immigrants in an American city. Each group will design an exhibit room focusing on one
element of Kenya's diverse culture.  As students collect information for their group
project, they should each fill out the Internet Research Worksheet handout 3.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to
identify during or after viewing of video segments, Websites or other multimedia
elements.

The focus for media interaction for this activity is for students to use Internet resources to
learn more about the multifaceted nature of Kenya's culture.

Depending on their group's assigned topic, students should access A Hotlist on Kenya at
http://kenyahotlist.cjb.net/  to find information they will need to plan their exhibit
room. Each student will first complete the Internet Research Worksheet handout 3.
Remind students that for each item they choose for their exhibit, they will need to write a
caption explaining its significance to Kenyan history and/or culture. Note: Computer
research requires constant interaction between the teacher and the students. Teacher will
need to monitor the students' progress. Teacher can assess student productivity through
informal observations. As students work in groups, teacher should ask groups to share
what information they find and help them troubleshoot any problems with the resources. 
It is important to closely watch time in the class and direct students to print out work or to
save their work on a floppy disk or on the student server.  Be sure that the students are
filling in all three columns of the Internet Research Worksheet handout 3.



Activity 3 - Culminating Activity
Direct the students to save any information they found today on a 3 ½ inch floppy, on the
student server, or in their individual files. Computers should be logged off and shut down
if necessary. Ask students to take 5 minutes within their group to review their findings
and plan which questions or tasks they will handle in tomorrow's class. Review steps 6-
11 from the Kenyan/American Community Center handout 2b to clarify the project
requirements.  The Internet Research Worksheet will be used as the basis for the
homework writing assignment (step 6 on the Kenyan/American Community Center
Project handout.) Tell students that the individual components of the project should be
completed and brought to class; the groups will have time in class to put the individual
components together for the group poster.

Wrap Up:

At the end of lesson, ask students to respond individually or in groups to the following
open-ended question:

One specific thing that I have learned about the cultures of Kenya is:

Possible answers: (These are just a few of the possible responses)
There are over 42 different languages in Kenya.
The Maasai people maintain many traditional practices.
Kenyan government created wildlife reserves to protect animals.
Nairobi is a busy and modern city similar to American cities.
Swahili is a blend of Arabic and Bantu cultures.
African art features a diversity of resources including wood and beads.
The English colonization of Kenya brought many English traditions including the
introduction of English language and westernized schools.


4: Community Showcase
Daily Challenge Question: How has cultural diffusion enriched Kenya's culture?

Set-up Directions:
Prior to class post or photocopy reflection questions from the Culminating Activity: What
have they learned about Kenya's culture? How does cultural diffusion affect cultures?
What role do immigrants play in cultural diffusion? Reorganize students in their assigned
groups and review the instructions for the Kenyan Community Center Exhibit poster.


Teacher Presentation & Motivation:
The teacher should start class by asking students to identify qualities of an attractive
visual aid.  Students should point out that attractive visual aids use colors that
complement each other, feature legible text, and are neatly organized.  Review the
standards from the Kenyan/American Community Center Group Poster Rubric handout 4
with the class. It would also be useful to repeat the directions from the Kenyan/American
Community Center handout 2b.  Answer student questions.

Activity 1 - Exhibit Room Layout
Provide students with poster board, construction paper, glue sticks, and scissors. Students
will work with their groups to complete the exhibit room layout on their poster board.
Advise students to review layout before pasting pictures and text to the poster board. 
Students will cut and paste their information for the exhibit onto their group poster. 

Activity 2 - Culminating Activity

Post the group posters on a classroom bulletin board or around the classroom. Ask the
students to consider the following questions: What have they learned about Kenya's
culture? How does cultural diffusion affect cultures? What role do immigrants play in
cultural diffusion? You may want to have the questions posted on the board. Allow
students to participate in a Gallery Walk, in which they go around the room to examine
each poster/exhibit.  After students have seen the posters, ask them to return to their seats
and write responses to the posted reflection questions in their notebooks. Allow five to
ten minutes for reflection and then call on students to discuss their responses.

Possible responses include: Culture changes over time as new groups bring in different
ideas, materials, and traditions.  The creation of the Swahili language and culture is a
good example of cultural diffusion because it shows how new cultures form when groups
intermarry.  Some groups that are isolated may preserve their traditions for centuries;
however, most Kenyan groups do interact with other parts of the society. For example,
the Maasai people may be geographically isolated, but tourists visit their society and
some Maasai people chose to go to universities and return.  Geography also shapes
culture as most Kenyans are proud of their natural resources. Modernization may present
some threats to wildlife and the government must find ways to preserve the nature and
meet the needs of a growing country. Immigrants to Kenya have added to its diversity. 
Emigrants of Kenya may return or exchange ideas of their new country with the families
they left behind.



Wrap Up:

Prediction question: Ask students to predict what they think Kenya's future will be like. 
If they need additional prompts, ask: Will traditional societies be pressured to modernize? 
Will new immigrant groups to Kenya change its values? Will emigration out of Kenya
change society for those who remain?  Can the wildlife be preserved in a developing
country? 

Possible Answers include but are not limited to:
The emigration of educated professionals can create a problem known as "Brain Drain"
which deprives the country of its most educated professionals.  Some students may
predict that Kenyan immigrants to the United States may return to Kenya after a few
years because of homesickness.  Kenyan immigrants abroad might send money and ideas
home to their families.  Traditional societies may feel continued pressure to modernize,
but if their land is protected from development, they may be able to preserve their
traditions. The city of Nairobi will continue to expand requiring more land to be
sacrificed for development.  The government will continue to protect wildlife reserves
because Kenya depends on the money generated by tourism.



Enrichment Options
Field Experiences

1) Check for a local African Art Museum and schedule a fieldtrip- some museums
feature craft workshops.
2) Check community for immigrant assistance societies. Some programs feature
fund raising activities (food-banks) clothes drives to help new immigrants. Also,
some feature cultural nights.
In Howard County contact the Foreign Born Information and Referral Network
(FIRN) FIRN helps foreign-born individuals and their families become
acclimated to the United States, providing information and referrals to local
services and agencies, including health care, interpreting, and translation.
            FIRN
 5999 Harpers Farm Road, Suite E-200
 Columbia, Maryland 21044
 410-992-1923

3) Visit a local ESOL program or Foreign Language Institute. Ask students to share
their perceptions of American culture and how they adapt to the differences. What
is the same?
-Guest Speakers
Invite guests from local churches, synagogues, or mosques: Ask them to describe
traditional religious practices or to discuss how religion and culture are
intertwined for many people.
-Community Service Opportunities:
            Tutor foreign students in English, participate in local clothing and furniture drives               
            to provide resources for new immigrants. Check local government for agencies 
            and phone numbers.



Cross-Curricular Extensions

-Public Speaking/Debate
      Debate pro and cons of colonialism on Africa and Great Britain.

-Art
      Recreate an African art project. PBS Africa for Kids Webpage  
      http://pbskids.org/africa/mask/about.html features directions for making a mask.  
            The National Museum of African Art provides outreach services that allows
            educators to borrow slide shows on various types of African art.  Students could 
            view shows and then create their own version of an African art project.  For more 
            information about the museum's resources check out the website at the following
            URL http://www.nmafa.si.edu/educ/core.htm.

-Science
      Ideas and products are not the only things that travel around the world. Diseases  
      also spread from place to place. Track a disease around the world- how have
      different governments tried to treat the disease? What international cooperation
      exists to deal with the disease? What assists in the spread of disease?

-Consumer Sciences
            Take a menu and trace the origin of all of the ingredients. Chart on a map of the
            world. Cook ethnic dishes in class.

-Math: Arabic Numbers
Students can see and hear real Arabic numbers at this website from the St. 
Ignatius School
 http://www2.ignatius.edu/faculty/turner/arabic/anumbers.htm
 Students can review the introduction of Arabic Numbers to European Society at
            this web-site from Medieval Technology Page.
 http://scholar.chem.nyu.edu/tekpages/arabnums.html

-Language Arts
            Students could read African folktales to discuss traditional values and the
            importance of oral tradition. Another option would be to read a biography of an
           African immigrant such as Kaffir Boy in America by Mark Mathabane.




Stage 4
Teacher Reflection


As a reflective practitioner, note how this lesson could be adjusted after its initial
implementation. How successful were the students? What did the assessment demonstrate
about the students' learning? What skills do the students need to revisit? What
instructional strategies worked and what made them successful? What will you change
the next time you use this lesson? Why?

Author: Cherie McGovern
Modified by: Alma Smith
Program: National Teacher Training Institute (NTTI)
Author's School System: Baltimore City Private Schools