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Lesson Plan   



 
    Lesson Information
     
 
    Outcomes and Standards
    Objectives
    Assessment
     
   
    Resources
    Materials
    Vocabulary
    Procedures
    Day Plans
    Enrichment Options
     
   
    Teacher Reflection
     



Stage 1
Identify Desired Results


Catchy Title: Counting the Miles To Freedom
Theme/Topic of Lesson: Exploring the World of Harriet Tubman
Time Commitment: Four 60-minute periods
Subject Area(s):
    Social Studies
Grade Level(s): 4,5,6
Standards Alignment:
Class Challenge Question:  Who was Harriet Tubman and what was the
Underground Railroad?
Overview:

In Counting the Miles to Freedom, students will explore the world of Harriet Tubman.
They will learn about a woman who, in searching for a better life for herself, gave the gift
of freedom to well over 300 slaves. Harriet Tubman, a slave born about 1820 on the
Eastern Shore of Maryland, became a conductor on the Underground Railroad. She
became known as Moses making 19 trips during an eleven-year period of freeing well
over 300 from slavery. During the Civil War she served as a nurse, scout, and spy for the
Union Army. After the Civil War she settled in Auburn, New York, where she died in
1913 at the age of 93 after opening a home for the aged. Slaves followed many clues as
they traveled the Underground Railroad. They learned about "The Drinking Gourd" and
patterns in quilts such as the monkey wrench and bow tie that were codes for their route
to freedom, and sang coded songs.

Students will interact with a Web site to travel on the Underground Railroad as they
experience many of the same choices that slaves faced on their journey toward freedom.
Students will work in pairs and groups of 6 as they complete their activities and learn
about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad.  Students will use a roadmap to
highlight Harriet Tubman's first route to freedom. They will gather facts and information
about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad from the Internet. Students will
share their knowledge in the form of a Kid Pix slide show, which will become part of the
school's multicultural library.  Students will need to have knowledge of required map
elements (title, author, date, compass rose, and legend). Students need to have worked in
cooperative groups prior to this lesson. Students will need to have some experience in
creating pictures in Kid Pix software. Student and teacher will need to be familiar with
cooperative learning concepts. Cooperative Learning results in mutual success through a
collaborative effort, individual/group accountability, face-to-face interaction, and
appropriate use of collaborative skills and social skills. The students will work in
cooperative groups of six and teams of two.  Student roles may include, but are not
limited to: coordinator/manager, timekeeper, recorder, evaluator, encourager, reader,
checker, group motivator, and tools manager.



Stage 2
Determine Acceptable Evidence


Social Study Skills
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students will demonstrate an understanding of historical and current events using chronological and spatial thinking, develop historical interpretations, and frame questions that include collecting and evaluating information from primary and secondary sources.
 
Social Study Skills
(4-5)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will demonstrate an understanding of historical and current events using chronological and spatial thinking, develop historical interpretations, and frame questions that include collecting and evaluating information from primary and secondary sources.
Maryland State Indicators
1.1.5.3
find, interpret, and organize primary and secondary sources of information including pictures, graphics, maps, atlases, artifacts, timelines, political cartoons, videotapes, journals, and government documents (MLO 1.3.)
Geography
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students will use geographic concepts and processes to examine the role of culture, technology, and the environment in the location and distributions of human activities and spatial connections throughout time.
 
Geography
(4-5)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will use geographic concepts and processes to examine the role of culture, technology, and the environment in the location and distributions of human activities and spatial connections throughout time.
Maryland State Indicators
4.1.5.2
construct and interpret maps using map elements including a title, cardinal and intermediate direction, compass rose, border, longitude and latitude, legend/key, author, date, and scale (MLO 3.1.)
Technology communication tools
(Gr. 3-5)
ISTE Technology Standards

4. Technology communication tools

  • Students use telecommunications to collaborate, publish, and interact with peers, experts, and other audiences.
  • Students use a variety of media and formats to communicate information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences.
ISTE Technology Performance Indicators
Use technology tools

Use technology tools (e.g., multimedia authoring, presentation, Web tools, digital cameras, scanners) for individual and collaborative writing, communication, and publishing activities to create knowledge products for audiences inside and outside the classroom.

Technology productivity tools
(Gr. 3-5)
ISTE Technology Standards

3. Technology productivity tools

  • Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.
  • Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology-enhanced models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.
ISTE Technology Performance Indicators
Use technology tools

Use technology tools (e.g., multimedia authoring, presentation, Web tools, digital cameras, scanners) for individual and collaborative writing, communication, and publishing activities to create knowledge products for audiences inside and outside the classroom.



Learning Objectives:

The Students will:
  • Compile and organize data about the Underground Railroad and Harriet Tubman
  • Explain the route Harriet Tubman took to first escape slavery.
  • Identify Harriet Tubman's first route to freedom.
  • Create a visual display of knowledge gained about Harriet Tubman and the
    Underground Railroad.

Assessment
The content and technology integration of this lesson will be assessed using the Kid Pix
Slide Show Rubric.



Stage 3
Plan Learning Experiences


Resources

Other TechnologyVideo Projector or multimedia projector
3 computer stations in the classroom
computer lab or at least 12 computers
VCR
Television or monitor
SoftwareKid Pix Visit this site to learn more about Kid Pix. It is an award winning painting & drawing
program that lets kids combine silly sounds, goofy graphics, and truly magical special
effects all on one screen! They combine their paintings and drawi
  http://www.learningcompanyschool.com/
Print MaterialsGo Free or Die Ferris, Jeri.  Houghton Mifflin Co., 1995.
Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt Hopkinson, Deborah.  Knopf, 1993
The Drinking Gourd. Monjo. F.N. Harper and Row, 1970.
Aunt Harriet's Underground Railroad in the Sky Ringgold, Faith. Crown Publishers,
1992.
Nettie's Trip South Turner, Ann. Macmillan, 1987.
Follow the Drinking Gourd Winter, Jeanette.  Knofp, 1988.
Maps -Wall map of Maryland
- Roadmaps of the state of Maryland (one for each student). Maps can be obtained
from the Visitor's Center on Route 13 North of Salisbury or at any Visitor's Center in
the State of Maryland.
-Map of Harriet
Video(s)The Freedom Station Producer: Maryland ITV. Distributor: Maryland ITV. Off-Air Recording Rights:
Unlimited. Number/Length: One 30 Minute Program. Visit www.thinkport.org  for the
"K-12 Educational Video Service."
Internet SitesPathways to Freedom This interactive web site from Maryland Public Television brings the story of the Underground Railroad to life.
  http://pathways.thinkport.org
The Underground Railroad Visit this National Geographic Site to explore the options of a Maryland slave in 1850.
Look at a route of the Railroad; learn what it was like to be a slave.
  http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/99/railroad/j1.html
Harriet Tubman & The Underground Railroad Visit this site to learn from the information compiled by a New York second grade class.
This site also offers some great photos, a map of the routes on the Underground Railroad,
and the story of the "Drinking Gourd."
  http://www2.lhric.org/pocantico/tubman/tubman.html
Harriet Tubman: Moses of the Civil War Read a 1992 newspaper article from the Sweetwater Reporter News about Harriett
Tubman.
  http://www.camalott.com/~rssmith/Moses.html
Interviews With Harriet Tubman Read excerpts and quotes from interviews with Harriet Tubman from July 17,1863 and
March 1865. Wow!
  http://vi.uh.edu/pages/mintz/35.htm
Underground Railroad Summary This site offers some good photos and a summary of the Underground Railroad. Links
will connect you to a map of the Underground Railroad Routes. Read the stories of the
slaves Ellen and William Craft and Anthony Burns.
  http://www.nps.gov/boaf/urrsum~1.htm
Slave Populations View maps from 1790, 1810, and 1830 that show the growth of the slave population in
the southern states. Absolutely amazing!
  http://wsrv.clas.virginia.edu/~tsawyer/HNS/slave.jpg

Materials
Per class
  • 3 computer stations with Internet access
  • A computer lab with 12 computer stations with Kid Pix software installed
  • a VCR
  • a television
  • Video projector or multimedia projector
  • Timer
  • Wall map of Maryland
  • Wall map of the United States
  • One copy of each of the following books:  Go Free and Die, The Drinking
    Gourd, Sweet Clara and the Freedom Quilt, Aunt Harriet's Underground
    Railroad in the Sky, Nettie's Trip South, Follow the Drinking Gourd. 
  • Printouts of the following: http://www.randomhouse.com/BB/teachers/tgs/harriet.html, http://www.camalott.com/~rssmith/Moses.html

  • Markers
Per student team/group of 2Per Student
  • Maryland Road Maps
  • Highlighters
  • Computer Station Pathways to Freedom  (View)
  • Freedom Station Viewing Guide  (View)
  • KidPix Storyboard  (View)
  • Reading Station Guide  (View)
Not Specified
  • Coop Group Rotation Model  (View)
  • Freedom Station Teacher Guide  (View)
  • Slide Responsibilities  (View)
  • SlideShow Tools  (View)
  • Student Coop Group Rules  (View)

Vocabulary
  • Abolitionist - a person who believes in putting an end to slavery.
  • Civil War - the war fought between the Northern and Southern states in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
  • Conductor - the person in charge of the passengers on a railroad; the person who guided the slaves as they traveled the Underground Railroad to freedom.
  • Plantation - a large farm where one crop is grown.
  • Underground Railroad - a secret code word invented for the escape route used by southern slaves prior to the Civil War.

Procedures

Students will interact with a Web site as well as view a video to travel on the
Underground Railroad as they experience many of the same choices that slaves faced on
their journey toward freedom. Students will work in pairs and groups of 6 as they
complete their activities and learn about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad. 
Students will use a roadmap to highlight Harriet Tubman's first route to freedom. They
will gather facts and information about Harriet Tubman and the Underground Railroad
from the Internet. Students will share their knowledge in the form of a Kid Pix slide
show, which will become part of the school's multicultural library.

This lesson can be successfully executed in a regular classroom with three computers but
would be easier with access to a computer lab as well. The students will be working in
cooperative groups of six and teams of two.  All activities are structured to accommodate
different learning styles and abilities.  Modifications can be implemented throughout
these lessons to provide for the success of all students.  Heterogeneous groups are a good
way to provide support for lower performing students.  Also, the use of graphic
organizers and allowing extended time will assist those students with disabilities. 
Enrichment activities can be used to enrich the lesson for high achieving students.  The
Kid Pix slide show will be assessed using a provided scoring rubric.


1: The Freedom Station
Daily Challenge Question: Why was Harriet Tubman called Moses?

Set-up Directions:

The teacher will need to make copies of The Freedom Station Viewing Guide for each
student. The teacher will need to arrange the classroom so that the students can see
clearly while viewing the television, while also being able to take notes on their Freedom
Station Viewing Guide. The video lasts 30 minutes, but it is anticipated that this activity
will take about 45 minutes due to the stopping and starting and time needed for
discussions and reflection time. The teacher will need to preset the video, ready to begin
at 00:39 or the point where you see the MPT gold logo. The teacher will need a copy of
The Freedom Station Teacher's Guide so pause and discussion points will be known.

The teacher will need to have prepared one of the computer stations by bookmarking and
loading the National Geographic site The Underground Railroad
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/99/railroad/.   The teacher should save each
of the pages from this site so the class will not have to wait for them to load during class
time. This will also insure that this activity can be completed if the Internet is down. The
computer will need to be set up with a video projector so that the entire class can view the
Web site. The computer will need to have audio/sound so that the students can benefit
from the audio portions of The Underground Railroad.



Teacher Presentation & Motivation:
Invite the students to join you as you journey back in time to explore the world of a local
African American to learn about the world in which she lived. Explain that the class will
be involved in two activities today. SAY: "We will begin today by watching the video
The Freedom Station. This excellent video gives you a glimpse of the emotions felt by
both the slaves and the people trying to help them. After watching the video we will
travel the Underground Railroad with the help of National Geographic. I will serve as
your conductor throughout the journey."

Activity 1 - How Does it Feel to be a Slave?
Viewing the Video The Freedom Station
In this activity, students will view a video depicting a runaway slave girl and her
interactions with the family who is hiding her away.
Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.
The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and /or information to
identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia
elements. The focus for media interaction while viewing the video, The Freedom
Station, is to find out who Moses is.
Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

The teacher will say, "You will need to look and listen carefully as you meet some
children your age. As we view this video, I will be stopping it periodically for you to take
to notes on your Viewing Guide and for us to have brief discussions." The teacher will
distribute The Freedom Station Viewing Guide and make sure all students have pencils.

Teacher will say, "You will need to look and listen carefully as you meet some new
children your age. As we view this video, I will be stopping it periodically for you to take
notes on your Viewing Guide and for us to have brief discussions."

The teacher will refer to The Freedom Station Teacher's Guide. This guide has directions
as to where to start and pause the video. Press PAUSE at each time indicated on the
Teacher's Guide. Each of the pauses correlates to questions the students should be
answering on their Freedom Station Viewing Guide. The teacher will make a decision,
each time the video is paused, as to how long the students need to respond to the
questions on their Freedom Station Viewing Guide and whether or not discussion is
needed to clarify any points. There are two sections that the Teacher's Guide indicates
may need to be viewed twice. To do this the teacher will need to REWIND the video as
indicated in the Teacher's Guide. Once the video is finished and the discussion has ended,
the teacher will begin Activity 2 as listed below.



Activity 2 - How Does it Feel to be a Slave II
The Underground Railroad
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/features/99/railroad/
This is an interactive Web site that has been created by National Geographic. The teacher
will begin by asking, "What do you see in the night sky?" The purpose of this question is
to focus their attention on the stars and the big dipper. Later on, during their independent
work, the students will learn the slaves called this constellation the "Drinking Gourd" and
used it as one of their guides to freedom. Click on the word "enter." This will take you to
the next page titled "You Are a Slave." The teacher will assist the students in reading this
page and viewing the pictures and their captions. Click on "Choose." The class will make
a decision regarding whether they should go or stay. For now encourage the class to
SELECT "Yes, I want to go." Tell the class, "Your focus for media interaction is to
listen for when Harriet Tubman escaped from the plantation she was living on."  The
teacher will read "Moses is Coming." Click on "Follow Her." Teacher will say, "Your
next focus for media interaction is to find out where you are going to run to next." 
Teacher will read "Stealing Away." Click on "to Camden, Delaware." Read "Fearful
Choice." Click on "Choose." Encourage the class to select "Yes, I'll approach the house."
Read "Safe Station." Say, "I think I hear bloodhounds.  Why do we hear bloodhounds?"
Allow the students to offer their responses. CLICK on "to Wilmington, Delaware." Tell
the students, " Your next focus for media interaction is to find out who Thomas Garrett
is."  Read "Strange New World" and learn about Harriet Tubman's friend Thomas
Garrett. Click on "to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania."   Teacher says, "Your next focus for
media interaction is to describe how William Still was different from other African
American men of his time." Read "Breathing Fee" and learn about William Still.  Click
"to Rochester, New York." The teacher will say, "Your next focus for media interaction
is to find out what the North Star was and who created it." Read "Near the Border."
Discuss how long it took to travel through the Appalachian Mountains. Find the route
that has been traveled so far on the wall maps of Maryland and the United States. Click
on "to Lake Erie." Read "Frightening Frontier" and make a decision as to whether on not
you should cross the lake. Encourage the students to select "Yes! Only Canada is truly
safe." Listen to the song "Free At Last" as you view this page. Read "The Promise Land."
This ends this viewing activity. If time permits, or possibly at a later date, the teacher
may want to go back to the pages where a decision was made and allow the students to
see what happens when they make a different choice.
Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?
Students will use the information gathered while watching the video The Freedom Station
and what they learned while traveling on The Underground Railroad when they create
their Kid Pix slide for the class slide show in the upcoming days. The teacher may choose
to briefly collect The Freedom Station Viewing Guide. This will give the teacher an
opportunity to view the quality of the student's independent work, take an independent
work grade, and/or make informal assessment of the student's writing skills.

Wrap Up:
The last few minutes of class will be spent discussing what they saw in the video and on
the Web site.
2, 3: Let's Learn about the Underground Railroad and a Slave Named Harriet Tubman
Daily Challenge Question: What was the Underground Railroad?

Set-up Directions:

The teacher will need to have arranged four station areas in the classroom. They will
include the Map Station, the Storyboard Station, the Reading Station and the Computer
Station. The computer station will consist of three computers.  The teacher will want to
post the rotations on a chart on the wall so that students can reference their group's
rotations. The teacher may refer to Teacher Resource #2: Cooperative Group Rotation
Model. The teacher may also want to post the names of the students in each of the four
groups. Each team will need to have pencils, markers or crayons, the Freedom Station
Viewing Guide, the Computer Station Guide, and their Reading Station Guide. Each team
will also need to have a blank Kid Pix Storyboard, a Kid Pix Tools handout, and a Slide
Show Tools handout. The Kid Pix Tools handout is a model to remind the students of the
tools they will be working with while creating their slide in Kid Pix. The Slide Show
Tools handout is where each team will indicate what sound and transition they want for
their slide. They will do this by circling the appropriate symbol on the Slide Show Tools
handout.

The teacher will explain each of the four stations to the students. Prepare each station
with the materials described below.

The Map Station will be where the students will highlight Harriet's route on a Maryland
roadmap. The teacher will have the book Go Free or Die: A Story About Harriet Tubman
at this station. Students will use information they have gathered and the map on page 54
of this book.

The Storyboard Station will be where the students will begin drafting their teams' slide
for the Kid Pix class slide show. The students will be working in teams of two. These
teams will be the same team that will work together at the computer station.  The teacher
will need to tell each team their slide topic by referring to Teacher Resource #3 Slide
Responsibilities handout. This should be posted at this station.

The Reading Station will offer students the opportunity to look at and read various
books and Internet printouts. Refer to the materials section of this lesson plan. Listed
there are suggested books and Internet sites to be printed out. The teacher may wish to
arrange this station around a table or on the floor with beanbags, floor mats, or pillows.

The Computer Station will be utilized for student Internet research. Students will work
in teams of two students per computer. The teacher will more than likely find that this
will be where she/he needs to monitor most heavily. The computers will be bookmarked
with the Pathways to Freedom: Maryland and the Underground Railroad Web site,
http://www.mpt.org/learningworks/pathwaystofreedom
The teacher will need to post and review the Cooperative Group Rules as found on
Teacher Resource #1.



Teacher Presentation & Motivation:
The teacher will SAY "Yesterday we learned a little about how it feels to be a slave and a
little about the Underground Railroad. Today you will work in groups and with partners
to gather information from the Internet, from maps, and from stories and books. You will
use this information to create a Kid Pix slide with your partner. You will create your
picture using Kid Pix software. I will then put all your pictures together to create a class
slide show. We will share our slide show with the fourth graders. The media specialist
will also receive a copy so that it can become part of our school's multicultural library."

Activity 1 - Gathering Information on the Underground Railroad

The class will cycle through two rotations on day 2 and complete the rotations on day 3.
The teacher will divide the students into their groups and have them move to their first
rotation. The teacher will say, "You will have 30-minutes to complete all the activities at
each station. At the end of the 30-minute period the timer will ring, indicating it is time to
clean up and move to your next station. You might not finish while working at the
Storyboard station. If this is the case, you will need to finish your storyboard for
homework."

Computer Station:

When each group arrives at the Computer Station the teacher will divide them into teams
of two, based on who they worked with at the Storyboard Station. Each team will work at
one computer station.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.
The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and /or information to
identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia
elements. While viewing the Internet site, the focus for media interaction is for students
to record different secret signs and symbols used on the Underground Railroad.
Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?
 The teacher will distribute the Computer Station Guide to the team members. Students
will use this sheet to guide them through the website and to record their information
about secret signs and symbols.
Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?
Students will use the information gathered and recorded on their Viewing Guides when
creating their Kid Pix slide for the class slide show.

Wrap Up:
Each student group will share one thing that they learned about the Underground
Railroad today. Students will be encouraged to use the maps they made, the books they
read and their Internet research to support their statements.

4: Creating a KidPix Class Slideshow
Daily Challenge Question: Who was Harriet Tubman and what was the Underground Railroad?

Set-up Directions:
The teacher will need to have available one computer for each team of two students.
Ideally the teacher would be able to take the class to the school's computer lab. If a lab is
not available, the teacher will need to work out a rotating schedule so that each team
would be able to work on one of the three class computer stations throughout the course
of the day.  Students will need to have their Kid Pix Storyboard, the Kid Pix Tools
handout, and the Slide Show Tools handout.  The teacher will need to make copies of the
Slide Show Scoring Rubric for each team of two students.

Teacher Presentation & Motivation:
Today, the students will be invited to be authors. Teacher will say, "Today you will
author, with your partner, a slide. Your team has already created a storyboard for your
slide. You will have the entire class period to create the actual slide. Please refer to the
Slide Show Rubric to make sure you have included all the needed components for your
slide. When you are finished I will help you save your slide to a disk. You will turn in the
disk and your storyboard to me. On the Slide Show Tools handout, please circle which
sound and transition you want to use for your slide. Have fun and use your time wisely."

Activity 1 - Creating a Slide
Students will work in their teams to create their Kid Pix slides. Each team of two students
will be working at one computer station. They will need to work cooperatively in order to
create their slide. The teacher will need to monitor students to make sure they stay
focused and follow their storyboard models. There may be some teams that want to
totally start over with their storyboards. This should be avoided. The teacher will need to
make him/herself available to help students as needed.  As each group finishes their slide,
they will save it to a disk. The disks will be given to the teacher. When turning in their
disks, students will also turn in their Storyboards. On the back of each story board
students should indicate what sound and transition they want with their slide.
The teacher will have the responsibility of putting the slide show together, unless there
are students in the class that are able to do so.

Wrap Up:
The students will view the slide show.

Enrichment Options
Community Connection

The teacher will take photos, with either a digital or regular camera, of students working
on the activities. These photos would be part of a school display for parent night. The
teacher could also make copies for students to have at home.

The final slide show can be shown at the next parent meeting.



Cross-Curricular Extensions
Language Arts
* Students will Write to Inform. They will write a letter to a student in another grade. In
their letter they will share what they have learned about Harriet Tubman and the
Underground Railroad. The letter will be delivered to the student at school.
* Students will write a letter to a fictitious slaveholder, persuading that person to
release their slaves.
* Students will write a letter to their teacher, expressing personal opinion, as to what
they learned during the past few days. Their letter will also include suggestions for
making the activity better.
    
Fine Arts
Students will create a class mural/collage illustrating the life of a slave and the
journey they undertook as they traveled to freedom.


Stage 4
Teacher Reflection



As a reflective practitioner, note how this lesson could be adjusted after its initial
implementation. How successful were the students? What did the assessment demonstrate
about the students' learning?  What skills do the students need to revisit?  What
instructional strategies worked and what made them successful?  What will you change
the next time you use this lesson?  Why? 

Author: Barbara G. Kerr and Judy Ward