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Lesson Plan   



 
    Lesson Information
     
 
    Outcomes and Standards
    Objectives
    Assessment
     
   
    Resources
    Materials
    Vocabulary
    Procedures
    Day Plans
    Enrichment Options
     
   
    Teacher Reflection
     



Stage 1
Identify Desired Results


Catchy Title: Gwynns Falls
Theme/Topic of Lesson: The Effects of Deforestation
Time Commitment: Five 60 minute class periods
Subject Area(s):
    Science - Biological and life sciences
    Social Studies - Geography
Grade Level(s): 6,7,8
Standards Alignment:
Class Challenge Question:

What is the impact of urban development and expansion on the health of a decidious forest ecosystem and humans? 


Overview:

This set of lesson plans is designed to help student to learn through an inquiry based set of activities focused on man's continuous development of land and usage of natural resources. Students will examine the issue of land development by responding to a specific scenario about a proposed land development venture in a decidious forest. Students will work in teams of three to compile data, calculate the population of a threatened species of animal in the decidious forest and graph the population size for several groups of animals before and after the proposed development project. Students will research the physiological affects of pesticides on human and animals. Students will design a powerpoint presentation to report their findings back to the Gwynns Falls Community. In order to implement these lessons teachers will need various resource materials on populations and the interdependency with its habitat, internet access, environmental textbook, powerpoint and excel software and Windows Media Player. 



Stage 2
Determine Acceptable Evidence


Environmental Science
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.
 
Knowledge of Statistics
(K-12)
Maryland Content Standards Indicators
Students will collect, organize, display, analyze, and interpret data to make decisions and predictions.
 
Life Science
(6-8)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the dynamic nature of living things, their interactions, and the results from the interactions that occur over time.
Maryland State Indicators
3.8.7
analyze factors that influence the size and stability of populations.
Environmental Science
(6-8)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.
Maryland State Indicators
6.8.4
compare how different parts of the world have varying amounts and types of natural resources and how the use of those resources determines environmental quality (i.e., soil erosion, water pollution, deforestation).
Environmental Science
(6-8)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will use scientific skills and processes to explain the interactions of environmental factors (living and non-living) and analyze their impact from a local to a global perspective.
Maryland State Indicators
6.8.5
analyze how human activities can accelerate or magnify many naturally occurring changes (i.e., erosion, air and water quality, populations). (MLO 6.2.)
Knowledge of Statistics
(6-8)
Maryland Content Standards
Students will collect, organize, display, analyze, and interpret data to make decisions and predictions.
Maryland State Indicators
4.8.1
conduct and use the results of a statistical investigation to answer a question. (MLO 3.1.)
Technology productivity tools
(Gr. 6-8)
ISTE Technology Standards

3. Technology productivity tools

  • Students use technology tools to enhance learning, increase productivity, and promote creativity.
  • Students use productivity tools to collaborate in constructing technology-enhanced models, prepare publications, and produce other creative works.
ISTE Technology Performance Indicators
Use content-specific tool

Use content-specific tools, software, and simulations (e.g., environmental probes, graphing calculators, exploratory environments, Web tools) to support learning and research.

Technology research tools
(Gr. 6-8)
ISTE Technology Standards

5. Technology research tools

  • Students use technology to locate, evaluate, and collect information from a variety of sources.
  • Students use technology tools to process data and report results.
  • Students evaluate and select new information resources and technological innovations based on the appropriateness for specific tasks.
ISTE Technology Performance Indicators
Use content-specific tool

Use content-specific tools, software, and simulations (e.g., environmental probes, graphing calculators, exploratory environments, Web tools) to support learning and research.



Learning Objectives:

The Students will:
  • Students will be able to explain how the actions of people impact the size of populations living within the same community by researching a development proposal of a deciduous forest into a commerical property. 

  • Students will be able to explain the difference between a threatened and endangered species by researching animals living in the Gwynns Fall Community.

  • Students will be able to calculate the current population density of assigned populations of animals and the estimated population after the development of the new golf course by using the population density equation and the technique of sampling.

  • Students will be able to describe the physiological affects of pesticides on humans and animals by researching an assigned pesticide and interpreting data from studies conducted by reliable resources to create a packaging label for their pesticide.


Assessment

Students will be evaluated ongoing until the completion of the final product. Students will be assesed on the completion of questions using a question rubric.Students will be assesed on their group contribution. Students will be assessed on their label dseign using the pesticide label rubric. Students will be assessed using a powerpoint rubric for the final product. All rubrics have been provided in the materials section of this lesson plan.




Stage 3
Plan Learning Experiences


Resources

Print MaterialsEnvironmental Science Textbook, Prentice Hall- Science Explorer
  http://
Video(s)Population Dynamics

This video shows the interdepency of animal populations on one another.

  http://www.unitedstreaming.com
Populations and Their Habitats

This video discusses the impact of human actitivties on the natural habitat of many animals.

  http://www.unitedstreaming.com
Internet SitesDepartment of Parks and Recreation

The website for the Baltimore City Department of Parks and Recreation which manages the land proposed for new development.

  http://www.ci.baltimore.md.us/government/recnparks/special_facilities.htm
Department of Forestry- Watershed Program
  http://www.dnr.state.md.us/forests/programapps/cbcon.asp
Gwynns Fall Trail
  http://www.gwynnsfallstrail.org/
The Friends of Gwynns Falls and Leakin Park
  http://www.leakinpark.com/
Chemical Pesticides Cause Cancer

Website explores the link between cancer and overexposure to pesticides.

  http://www.health-report.co.uk/cancer-pesticides-245T-24D.html
Texas Environmental Profiles

This website dicusses the relationship between pesticide exposure and health problems.

  http://http://www.texasep.org/html/pes/pes_3hum.html
Pesticide User's Guide

This website provides general information about the usage of pesticides.

  http://ohioline.osu.edu/b745/b745_4.html
Environmental Protection Agency

Divides pesticides into various categories based on its chemical composition. 

  http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/

Materials
Per class
  • Pesticide Application- Photograph of a person applying pesticide to a field. (Also found in the powerpoint presentation.)  (View)
  • Pesticide Application-Photograph of a person applying pesticide to a field. (Also found in the powerpoint presentation.)  (View)
  • What's On That Broccoli? - Powerpoint presentation to introduce pesticides.  (View)
Per student team/group of 3
  • Computer/ Internet Access

  • Population Data Chart

  • Colored Pencils

  • Power Point PresentationRubric  (View)
  • Rubric for Evaluating Responses to Questions  (View)
Per Student
  • Beaver Population Handout

  • Graph Paper

  • Environmental Science Textbook

  • Population Density of Beavers  (View)
  • Rick's Math Web Graph Paper  (View)
  • Two Widely Used Pesticides Linked to Parkinson  (View)
  • Pesticide Questions  (View)
  • Paraquat  (View)
  • Parkinson'sDisease  (View)
  • Pesticide link to Parkinson  (View)
  • Tallying Up the Cost of Change  (View)
  • Dead Fish Article  (View)
  • PESTICIDE LABEL RUBRIC  (View)

Vocabulary
  • Ecosystem - All the living and nonliving things that interact in an area
  • Development - The construction of buildings, roads, dams, and other structures.
  • Community - All the different populations that live together in an area.
  • Habitat Destruction - The loss of a natural habitat.
  • Endangered Species - A species in danger of becoming extinct in the near future.
  • Threatened Species - A species that could become endangered in the near future.
  • Limiting Factor - An environmental factor that prevents a population from increasing.
  • Population - All the members of one species in a particular area.
  • Population Density - The number of individuals in a specific area.
  • Sampling - Counting the number of organisms in a small area and then multiplying to find the number in a larger area.
  • Pesticides - A chemical used to kill pests.

Procedures

Students will work in groups of three to complete their research. Students will search the designated websites to locate the information requested by the Gwynns Falls Community Council. Students will use this infromation to complete the assigned tasks and to collect data to share in their powerpoint presentations.


Day 1: Gwynns Falls Community
Daily Challenge Question: Why was the Gwynns Falls/Leakin Park Trail established?
50 minutes
Set-up Directions:

Students will use the internet to research and learn more about the establishment of the Gwynns Falls/ Leakin Park area. Students will use two websites to respond to a series of questions about this area. Students will use a map of  Baltimore City to locate this area. For today's lesson the teacher will need to duplicate the questions for the Gwynns Falls Trail Website.



Teacher Presentation & Motivation:

Teacher will ask students what an animals habitat provides for them? Teacher will pause for responses. (ex: Water, Food, Shelter)  Teacher will pose the question what happens to animals when their habitat is altered. Teacher will go over the information about the assignment explain to students the proposed development project.



Activity 1 - Gwynns Fall History

A New Golf Course

The Davis Corporation has taken an interest in the Gywnns Fall Community. They have sent out surveyors and observers to monitor activity along the Gywnns Fall hiking and biking trail. The Corporation has put together a comprehensive study to present at a community meeting in support of their $100million dollar proposal for developing a new golf course right along the trail. Their observers found that during certain times of the year the trail is virtually deserted. They also believe that the development of this golf course wouldn’t harm anyone but would improve the lives of members of the community by contributing revenue to the local businesses not to mention the number of jobs it will create.

The community organization has asked you to put together a team to complete your own investigation to determine if the addition of the golf course will have a negative impact on the community. Your task will require the following from you:
- Students will be required to research the history of the Gwynns Falls Trail and community using  two websites which are linked to this lesson, The Friends of Gwynns Falls Community and the Gwynns Fall Trail.

- Students will be required to calculate the population of the speicfied species of animal (beaver) living along or near the trail using information provided by the teacher.

Students will be required to find the population density before and after the proposed development project were to place.
- Students will be required to research to determine if this species of animal is threatened or endangered species.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

Students will gather information about the history of the Gwynns Falls and its role as a habitat for many different  species of animals. This information will be shared at the Community Council Meeting.


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

Responding to the questions about the history of the Gwynns Falls Leakin Park Community on the beaver poulation handout.


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

Students will use the information for the internet research to explain the importance of preserving the legacy of the Gwynns Falls Community. Students will also argue that the Gwynns Falls is an important habitat for many different species of animals. Students will use information provided by the teacher to determine the population density of the beaver in this area. Students will calculate the population density before and after the proposed development were to take place.



Activity 2 - Decidious Forest

Students will view two short video clips on Population Dynamics and the Animal Habitats and Preserving the Natural Habitat of The Burrowing Owl. Students will view these clips and identify some limiting factors that will impact an animal's population in a decidious forest if man continues to expand his urban dwellings.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

How will the development and continuous expansion of our urban communities impact the health of our forest communities? How will the clearing of a forest region impact our lives in the future? How are we doing ourselves a diservice, when we clear forest land and make way for new housing? What are some stressors that we place on the environment as a result of urban development?  


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

Identifying the impact of human development, expansion and clearing of natural forest ecosystems.


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

What does this mean for the native inhabitants of the decidious forest and how would this impact their survival rate? Where are the lawyers trying to secure Environmental Justice for Squirrels?

Students will complete the pros and cons worksheet, Development/Preservation.



Wrap Up:

Students would be asked to think about why the establishment of this park and trail important to its founder and to think about what they would miss most about a park that they use if it was sold and cleared for urban development.


2 day: Pesty Pesticides
Daily Challenge Question: Explain the health effects of pesticides on humans.
50 minutes period
Set-up Directions:

Each group of students will need at least one computer with internet access to research the affects of a specific type of pesticide used by farmers. Students will need a graphic organizer to record the data that they will collect. Students will each need a copy of the article, "Dead Fish".



Teacher Presentation & Motivation:

Students will examine two photographs and will describe what event they see taking place. Students will be asked to describe how their mother goes about preparing a salad. After she has gathered all of the ingredients she needs what is the first thing she does. (Examples of responses: She washes the vegetables off, or she cuts the vegetables up) Why does she wash off the vegetables? How can the chemicals used to kill insects called pesticides affect a person if ingested? (Examples of responses: They could kill you, make you sick, or cause you to throw up) Explain to the students that in today's lesson they will be responsible for researching the health risks of human exposure to a specific pesticide which may be used by the new golf course and reporting these results back to the class. Also explain to the students that they will need to consider this environmental risk factor when reporting back to the Gwynns Falls Community about the environmental impact of this land development in their community.



Activity 1 - Trouble in the Stream

Students will begin by reading the article, " Dead Fish, about a similar incident involving a golf course's usage of pesticides to treat their precious putting greens. Students will discuss methods of human exposure to these pesticides.( Directly by application of the pesticides and indirectly through food or water.)

Teacher will then break up students into their groups of three to four and assigned each group a specific pesticide. Each group will use a computer with internet access to search the EPA website to locate information on the pesticide ( If no access to internet then the teacher could print off the materials about the pesticides for the groups). Students will use the guide questions to collect data. Suggested pesticides to assign to students are paraquat, maneb, rotenone (used to kill the snakehead population in Crofton), permethrin, lindane, and methomyl. Also teachers could have students compare the cost ,effectiveness and health issues associated with chemical vs. organic pesticides.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

Students will explain the link between usage of pesticides and environmental health problems. Students will decide if only the people who work with pesticides or if the general public is also at risk.


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

Students will answer the focus questions while researching the pesticide on the EPA's website and reading the articles that have been linked to the lesson.


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

Students will include this information to inform the Gwynns Falls Community of the pros and cons of allowing the Davis Corporation to develop a golf course in the Gwynns Falls area. Students will also use data collected about their pesticide to design a label  for their product. Students will also rate their product on it's level of toxicity to humans. Using a scale developed at the beginning of the lesson by the class. (Teacher will provide examples of some commonly used pesticides found in the home garden section of most stores. Students can use these products to get an idea of what the label for their product should look like.)



Activity 2 - Tallying Up the Cost

Now its time for students to take all of the research collected over the past two days to analyze and organize their data into a powerpoint presentations. Students will graph their population density data from in class and home assignments into excel to be added to the powerpoint. Students will begin their presentations with the first part of the research which was the history. Students will then include and explain the data collected. Students will then make their recommendation based on the research that they conducted whether or not the community should accept the development proposal of the Davis Corporation.



Wrap Up:

Students will share their pros and cons charts to make a giant class chart to be displayed as a poster. Students will reflect in a journal writing about their personal feelings on the topic of the proposed golf course. Students will prepare to present their powerpoint presentations with the rest of the class.



Enrichment Options
Community Connection

Students will design a pamphlet of their powerpoint presentation to be shared with their community about the importance of preserving our decidious forest ecosystem and the dangers of land development.



Parent-Home Connection

Parents could assist students in idesigning a map illustrating the changes in their community overtime as a result of land development. Students will conduct interviews of family members and neighbors who have lived in the community for sometime. A student could also research and look at older maps of the neighborhood to use as another point of reference.



Field Experiences

Students could take a hike along the Gwynns Falls trail in an effort to see for themselves what would be lost if a land developer came through and established a golf course. Students could take pictures to include in a biography about the history and establishment of the Gwynns Falls Nature Trail and Leakin Park.

Students could also complete some water quality testing in the nearby streams and creeks that contribute to the Gwynns Falls Watershed.



Cross-Curricular Extensions

Students could write a letter to their congressman expressing concern about the ongoing struggle to preserve disappearing habitats for many species of animals. This business letter could stress the importance of wetland, decidious forest and esturary for examples and the need to protect the animals living in these particular habitats. Students could express the impact that the continuous loss of these habitats has on our environment. For example the decrease in crabs and other bay inhabitants because of the dwindling sea grass beds.




Stage 4
Teacher Reflection


Author: Dara Davis
Program: EnviroHealth Connections
Author's School System: Baltimore City Public Schools
Author's School: Rognel Heights Elementary/Middle