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    Lesson Information
     
 
    Objectives
    Assessment
     
   
    Resources
    Materials
    Vocabulary
    Procedures
    Day Plans
    Enrichment Options
     
   
    Teacher Reflection
     



Stage 1
Identify Desired Results


Catchy Title: It's a bright and beautiful day...Protect Yourself!
Theme/Topic of Lesson: Skin Cancer; Ozone Depletion
Time Commitment: 3 class periods
Subject Area(s):
    Health - Disease
    Science - Environmental
    Science - Earth science
Grade Level(s): 6,7,8,9,10,11,12
Standards Alignment:
Class Challenge Question: What changes in the earth’s atmosphere have contributed to an increase in UV radiation and possibly the significant rise in the number of people who develop skin cancer?  Why is it important for young people to protect themselves early in life, and what can they do to protect themselves from the sun's damaging rays?
Overview:

Tan, healthy and beautiful! Often, young people particularly, think that being tan is a sign of beauty and health.  People of all ages everywhere can be found chatting poolside, soaking up the sun's warm rays on sandy beaches, or just exercising outdoors on a beautiful summer day.  But are these tan people really healthy?  What can they do to protect themselves from too much sun exposure and why is this important?  In this lesson, students will find out!

Students will explore a series of events that have occurred over several decades and hypothesize about their effect on the increase in the number of skin cancer cases. 

Students will first be provided with background information on skin cancer, including statistical information that illustrates the significant rise in skin cancer rates over the last several decades. Students will learn about ultraviolet radiation, and how too much sun (UV) exposure can damage the skin. They will learn about the earth's atmosphere and develop an understanding of how the ozone layer protects us from the ultraviolet radiation and then explore why and how the ozone layer is slowly being depleted.   Students will be challenged to formulate their own hypotheses about the cause and effect relationships of these events. Finally, students will have opportunities to engage in fun activities to learn more about the importance of protecting themselves from ultraviolet radiation and what proactive measures they can take immediately to prevent skin damage.

Note to teacher: this lesson was designed for middle school students, but can be adapted for high school students.



Stage 2
Determine Acceptable Evidence


Learning Objectives:

The Students will:
    • Hypothesize cause/effect relationship between atmospheric conditions, increased sun exposure and a rise in skin cancer
    • Describe the dangers of overexposure to UV radiation and identify protective measures to prevent skin damage
    • Use data from tables to create and interpret graphs of ozone levels and how it has been depleted over the last four decades

Assessment

Students will be assessed on the completion and accuracy of the following.

(1) Cause/ Effect Tree Organizer (cause-effect_organizer.doc) including an illustrative diagram (20 points)

(2) Excel graphical representation and response to questions (ozone_tables.doc) about the decrease in ozone levels over several decades (10 points)

(3) Quiz (quiz.doc) (25 points)

 

 




Stage 3
Plan Learning Experiences


Resources

Video(s)Optional
  1. Be Smart Protect Yourself (about a young melanoma survivor); available thru Maryland's Sunguardman initiative http://ucf.win.aplus.net/Education/HighSchool/TeacherGuide.PDF
  2. SunWise EPA video available for free from www.epa.gov/sunwise
  3. Optional videos can be accessed from United Streaming, if available to your school.  See http://www.unitedstreaming.com
Internet SitesABCs of UV Understanding UV Radiation and the UV Index  (Days 1 & 3)

Resource used for student research

  http://www.healthunit.org/sunsafety/uv.htm
SunWise Kids

EPA SunWise Kids Program

- various pages within the site are referenced throughout the lesson and PowerPoint presentation

  http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/kids/
Sunguard Man

Maryland's Sunguardman program that contains many useful pages, including a teacher's resource guide.  Specific web pages referenced throughout the lesson for student activities and in the PowerPoint presentation

 

  http://www.sunguardman.org
Skin Cancer Resource used in teacher guided discussion on skin cancer (Day1)

 

  http://www.maui.net/~southsky/introto.html#is

Materials
Per class
  • A good classroom resource.  Printable booklet for teachers with pages that can be photocopied for students http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/doc/sunuvu.pdf


     

  • It's a bright and beautiful day quiz answer key  (View)
  • It's a bright and beautiful day teacher resources  (View)
  • It's a bright and beautiful day worksheet answer key  (View)
  • It's a bright and beautiful day cause effect organizer answer key  (View)
  • It's a bright and beautiful day slide show

      (View)
  • It's a bright and beautiful day standards  (View)
as determined by instructorPer Student
  • It's a bright and beautiful day QUIZ  (View)
  • It's a bright and beautiful day student worksheet  (View)
  • It's a bright and beautiful day cause effect organizer  (View)

Vocabulary
  • UVA radiation - Ultraviolet (Aging): penetrates deep into the skin and is responsible for premature aging of the skin and skin cancer.
  • UVB radiation - Ultraviolet (Burning): UVB is stronger than UVA radiation. It mainly affects the outer layers of the skin, causing sunburns, premature aging of the skin, and skin cancer. These rays are strongest during the summer months, especially between 11 am and 4 pm.
  • UVC - UVC radiation is the strongest, most dangerous form of UV light. These rays, however, are stopped by the earth's atmosphere and do not reach earth's surface.
  • UV Index - a measure of the intensity of the sun's UVA and UVB rays. The higher the number, the stronger the sun?s rays, and the greater the risk for skin damage.
  • melanoma (skin cancer) - The least common, but most deadly form of skin cancer
  • carcinoma (nonmelanoma skin cancer) - cancerous growth of surface tissues of the skin that can usually be treated with minor surgery; usually non-life threatening, though often recurring. Two most common types are basal and squamous cell carcinoma; Carcinoma is "a type of cancer that begins in the lining or covering tissues of an organ?" (from'What You Need to Know About Skin Cancer')
  • ozone layer - a portion of the earth's atmosphere that contains high levels of ozone
  • stratosphere - the portion of the earth's atmosphere that houses the ozone layer
  • ozone - a form of oxygen found in the stratosphere that provides a protective layer shielding the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
  • CFCs - chlorofluorocarbons; chemicals that are released into the earth's atmosphere that breakdown the stratosphere, resulting in the depletion of the ozone layer

Procedures

This 3-day lesson is structured to scaffold knowledge, with concepts building upon one another to engage students in higher level thinking. Fundamentally, students will explore and hypothesize cause/effect relationships between the following events:

  • Increase in skin cancer over the last several decades
  • Increase in UV radiation exposure
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • CFC emissions

After learning about the rise in skin cancer rates and their own increased exposure to UV radiation, students will explore why more UV rays are entering the earth’s atmosphere in the last 40+ years. They will learn about the depletion of the ozone layer as well as the human impact on this. Students will hypothesize about connections and correlations among skin cancer rates, UV radiation and ozone depletion. Finally, students will engage in activities to develop an understanding of how they can protect themselves from UV radiation.

At a minimum, an LCD projector connected to a computer and the Internet is required for this lesson. Ideally, a computer lab will be available for students to conduct their own research. Depending upon the availability of computers, teachers may choose to group students heterogeneously for this lesson, or have them work independently as they conduct online research.  If no computers are available, the lesson can be easily modified so that students follow along with the teacher who navigates through Internet sites as students complete their worksheets.

Teacher’s prior knowledge

Teachers should be familiar with the content covered prior to implementing this lesson. Since this is an interdisciplinary lesson covering both health (skin cancer) and science (earth and atmospheric science), teachers may want to refer to the Teacher Resource (teacher_resource.doc) for additional background information, in order to facilitate student learning and guide discussions. Also, some familiarity with using Excel to create charts and graphs is helpful.

This 3-day lesson is structured to scaffold knowledge, with each day’s content building upon the previous day. However, content can easily be expanded or eliminated based on the teacher's comfort level, as well as students’ level and prior knowledge. For instance, high school chemistry teachers can expand upon Day 2 of the lesson going more in-depth into the chemical properties of CFCs and how their breakdown affects the ozone layer. (see http://www.bom.gov.au/lam/Students_Teachers/ozanim/ozoanim.shtml).  Health teachers may want to spend more time on the types of skin cancer, symptoms and treatment (only a brief overview of types is suggested in this lesson).  Resources for expanding activities are included in the Teacher Resource document.

For those teachers who have access to United Streaming or an extensive video library, the lesson can be enhanced with video:

  • Skin Cancer (Day 1)
  • Ozone Depletion (Day 2)
  • Importance of Protecting Yourself from UV (Day 3)

Recommendations:
- The EPA publishes a free video for teachers  (some sections can be shown to students).  You can order one free-of-charge by visiting http://www.epa.gov/sunwise
- "Be Smart Protect Yourself" a young melanoma survivor talks about his experience with skin cancer. 

Student Prerequisites
Students should have some basic familiarity with earth and atmospheric science. Some basic knowledge of chemistry is helpful, but not required. Students should also have experience using Excel for creating charts or graphs. Teachers may want to spend time prior to the lesson working with students who don’t have this skill.


 


3: How can you protect yourself?
Daily Challenge Question: What can we do to prevent skin cancer and protect ourselves from the ultraviolet rays?
45 minutes
Set-up Directions:

As with the other day's activities, a computer connected to an LCD protector and the Internet is necessary for the activity to show the PowerPoint presentation (skincancer_ozone.ppt) to help guide the initial discussion.

Ideally, you should have access to a computer lab for these activities, however, it is not required.  If you do not have access to a computer lab or computers in your classroom, you may modify the activity to be a whole class discussion as they follow along while you navigate through Internet websites.

 



Teacher Presentation & Motivation:

Collect the ozone table graphs and discuss Cause / Effect Organizer and diagram that students completed for homework.

Conduct a quick review of what students have learned so far.  Ask which students think there is a direct correlation between the rise in skin cancer and the depletion of the ozone layer? Ask why they think this, and whether or not they can prove it?

Allow students to "debate" for several minutes before moving on.

Explain that while we can hypothesize a cause/effect relationship, we cannot yet scientifically prove a direct correlation. Tell students that there are researchers now actively examining the relationship of the growing risk of skin cancer to increases in UV radiation due to ozone depletion.

But, we do know there are definitive and factual ways that we can protect ourselves.  Tell students that you don’t have to be very old to get skin cancer. You can avoid this disease by learning how to protect yourself now.

Explain that in this final activity, students will learn how to take protective action.

Optional: Show video, “Be Smart Protect Yourself,” in which Doug Ulman, a young melanoma survivor talks about his experience with skin cancer. Discuss class reaction to video.



Activity 1 - Take Protective Action!

Now that students have learned about UV radiation, and its correlation to melanoma, it's important that they understand what protective measures they can take to prevent skin damage.  In this activity, students will access several resources to learn how they can proactively take action to protect themselves.  They will use the information to complete Part III of their worksheet. 

As with other lessons, if you do not have access to a computer lab, you can guide the discussion using a computer connected to an LCD projector.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

Students will explore several websites to learn how to protect themselves from skin damage.

 

 


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

As students explore the websites below, they are responsible for completing Part III of their worksheet.

Action!
http://www.sunguardman.org/protect1.html

Sunwise Action Steps
http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/kids/kids_actionsteps.html

8 Ways to Prevent Skin Cancer
http://www.healthunit.org/sunsafety/8ways.htm



 


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

Students will use the information to prepare for a quiz on the entire lesson, as well as proactively take steps to protect themselves in their own personal lives.



Activity 2 - Online Challenges and Activities

This activity is optional, but recommended.

Students will engage in fun, online interactives designed to reinforce their knowledge and understanding of content presented.  Students who finish their worksheets early can either work individually or in pairs to engage in activities.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

Students will explore and interact with a variety of websites that reinforces their knowledge and understanding of UV Radiation and the importance of protecting themselves. 


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

Students are responsible for engaging in online activites that challenge them process what they learned in this lesson and reinforce knowledge

Sunwise Challenges
Students can choose, easy, medium or hard levels to complete activities, puzzles and games designed to reinforce knowledge
http://www.epa.gov/sunwise/kids/challenge.html

Sunguard Man Interactives
Includes an online treasure hunt, word game, and opportunities to win prizes
http://www.sunguardman.org/interact.html


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

Students will have gained a deeper understanding of UV radiation, skin cancer and the importance of taking protective action by engaging in the activities.

Some activities encourage students to submit their completed activities and answers to be eligible for prizes.

 



Wrap Up:

As a class, review what students can proactively do to protect themselves.

Make sure students have completed all Parts of their worksheet and Cause/ Effect organizer so that they can prepare for the quiz.  Students should update their cause/effect organizer for homework, based on any new information they learned from today's activities.

 


Day 1: Sunburn...more than just a little painful?
Daily Challenge Question: Why should I care about an occasional sunburn?
45 minutes
Set-up Directions:

A computer connected to an LCD protector and the Internet is necessary for the activity to show the brief PowerPoint presentation (skincancer_ozone.ppt) to help guide the initial discussion.  Alternatively if you choose to show a video clip you will need appropriate equipment. 

Ideally, you should have access to a computer lab for the second activity, however, it is not required. If you have a limited number of computers and need to put students into collaborative groups, have heterogeneous groupings pre-determined to save time. If you do not have access to a computer lab or computers in your classroom, you may modify the activity to be a whole class discussion as they follow along while you navigate through Internet websites.

Distribute copies of the following worksheets to each student (or group of students):

  • Protect Yourself! Student Worksheet
  • Cause/ Effect Organizer


Teacher Presentation & Motivation:

To lay a foundation for the next three days and to begin to scaffold knowledge and assess what students may already know, begin by having a discussion with students about tanning, exposure to the sun and skin cancer.  Ask students the following:

  • Raise your hands if you think a person with a tan looks attractive
  • Raise your hands if you think a person with a tan looks healthy
  • Who uses sunscreen?
  • When do you use sunscreen? (summer only)
  • Why do you use sunscreen (some might say protect skin from sunburn)
  • Raise your hands if you’ve ever had a sunburn. Was it so bad that you developed blisters?
  • What’s so bad about sunburn (other than it hurts); (causes cancer)
  • What do you know about skin cancer? (different types, some more dangerous than others; any family member(s) who have skin cancer?)


Activity 1 - Background on Skin Cancer

Through guided discussion with the accompanying PowerPoint presentation (skin cancer_ozone.ppt)* and Internet websites, students will develop a basic understanding of skin cancer, including the increase in the number of cases over the past several decades and the reason for the rise in rate. 

The presentation/discussion focuses on the following:

  • skin cancer is the most common form of cancer
  • types of skin cancer (basal, squamous, melanoma)
  • mortality rates (increase over the last 3 decades)
  • majority of melanoma caused by UV radiation
  • increase in risk since 1935
  • skin cancer and adolesence

* Modification: Show a video of skin cancer and the different types.


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

As the teacher guides a discussion on skin cancer while showing the PowerPoint presentation* students will complete Part I of their worksheet to develop a basic understanding of skin cancer, including statistical information.

* Modification: Show a video of skin cancer and the different types.


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

Students will record information about skin cancer on Part I of their worksheet during the class discussion and presentation on skin cancer.


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

Process students reactions to skin cancer photographs and data.

Review that the increase in melanoma skin cancer is an effect of increased exposure to UV radiation, which is explored in the next activity.



Activity 2 - Understanding Ultraviolet Radiation

After being introduced to the concept of UV radiation, students will explore UV radiation in more detail, including the different types.  Depending upon your computer set up, students will either conduct research independently, in groups, or through guided discussion as they follow along as you navigate through the websites.  They will continue to complete Part I of their worksheet.  Upon completion of this activity, students will have gained an understanding of different types of UV radiation and how and why they cause skin damage.

 

 


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

Students will continue to complete Part I of their worksheet as they navigate through the websites provided in order to develop an understanding of UV radiation.
 


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

Students will be responsible for viewing the websites below and completing Part I of their worksheet


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

Discuss with students the cause/effect relationship between UV radiation and melanoma.

Guide a brief class discussion on the UV index and what it means, to process what they learned.



Wrap Up:

Ask students to speculate as to why more UV radiation is entering the earth's atmosphere?  Tell students that they will be exploring this the next day.

For homework, have students fill in their cause/effect organizer, based only on the factual data that they learned today (increase in UV radiation -> increase in melanoma cases)


Day 2: A hole in the sky!
Daily Challenge Question: What's the human impact of the changes in our atmosphere and how might that affect our health?
45 minutes
Set-up Directions:

A computer connected to an LCD protector and connected to the Internet is necessary for the activity to show the PowerPoint presentation (skincancer_ozone.ppt) to help guide the initial discussion. Alternatively if you choose to show a video clip you will need appropriate equipment.

Ideally, you should have access to a computer lab for the Excel activity, however, it is not required. You may have students create their graphs on drawing paper.

Students should have their worksheets from the previous day.  Also distribute copies of the ozone tables handout (ozone_tables.doc)



Teacher Presentation & Motivation:

Begin the discussion by conducting a review from the previous day.

[Yesterday] we talked about skin cancer and exposure to UV rays. Let's review what we learned.  Who can describe the cause/effect relationship of the events that we discussed?

Guide the discussion to make sure students understand that there is a direct correlation between skin cancer and UV radiation exposure.

Move the discussion along by asking students why they think we are being exposed to more UV radiation.

Note: student's previous knowledge and responses may influence how you guide the discussions for today's activities.



Activity 1 - Ozone Layer and Earth's Atmosphere

Through guided discussion, students will gain a fundamental understanding of the earth's atmosphere (specifically the stratosphere level), the ozone layer and the importance of the natural gas, ozone, in shielding the earth's surface from UV radiation. Students will discover the causes of ozone depletion, as well as how to reverse its effects. 

Modification: for older students and/or HS chemistry, a more detailed look at ozone depletion can be examined http://www.bom.gov.au/lam/Students_Teachers/ozanim/Worksheet7.shtml

 


Focus for Media Interaction
Focus for Media Interaction: The focus for media interaction is a specific task to complete and/or information to identify during or after viewing of video segments, Web sites or other multimedia elements.

Using Day 2 of the skincancer_ozone.ppt PowerPoint presentation, the teacher will guide the discussion about the earth's atmosphere, ozone, ozone depletion and how humans have impacted the ozone layer.


Viewing Activities
What will your students be responsible for while viewing this piece of multi-media or video?

Students will be responsible for completing Part II of their Protect Yourself! worksheet as the teacher leads a guided class discussion.


Post Viewing Activities
How will students utilize the information they gathered while viewing the multi-media or video?

Review what students recorded on their worksheets. They will use this information later to fill in their Cause / Effect organizers.

 



Activity 2 - Decrease in Ozone

Using the Ozone Tables handout (ozone_tables.doc) students will use Excel to plot real data from ozone readings, to further reinforce their knowledge and understanding of ozone depletion through graphical representation.



Activity 3 - So what does this have to do with skin damage?

Students will use the remaining time to complete their cause/effect relationships, filling in both factual and hypothetical relationships of the events discussed.  Using this information, they must then create a diagram, an illustrative representation, of their understanding of the connections between these events.

 



Wrap Up:

Wrap up the lesson by ensuring that students understand that there is no scientific evidnece to support that the increase in skin cancer incidences is a direct result of ozone depletion. 

For homework, students should complete their ozone graphs/worksheet, their cause/effect organizers and accompanying diagram.

 



Enrichment Options
Community Connection

Invite a guest speaker from the CDC to come in and speak with the students about skin cancer.



Parent-Home Connection


Have students discuss with their families, the article entitled, Families Fry Together
http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content/news/families_frying.5.13.html

Engage students in creating with you, an activity guide that they can share with their parents.  See Sunsafe Activity Guide
http://www.nsc.org/public/ehc/sunsafe/sun100-1.pdf



 



Cross-Curricular Extensions

Health Extensions:  Research and discuss other health effects that are a direct result of an increased exposure to UV radiation (cataracts, suppression of immune system, etc.)

Emphasis on Scientific process: Have students engage in a scientific debate about the correlation between ozone depletion and rise in skin cancer

Focus on language arts: Have students write a persuasive essay on the importance of protecting onself from UV radiation exposure

Statistics and Geography: Have students research whether or not there are any direct correlations between an increase in skin cancer in different parts of the world (i.e., countires closer to sun, etc.)

Media Literacy: have students create an advertisement (poster, billboard, brochure) about how people can protect themselves from UV radiation.

 

 




Stage 4
Teacher Reflection


As a reflective practitioner, note how this lesson could be adjusted after its initial implementation. How successful were the students in demonstrating their knowledge about the subject matter? What did the assessment demonstrate about the students' learning? What skills do the students need to revisit? What instructional strategies worked and what made them successful? What will you change the next time you use this lesson? Why?



Author: Donna Schnupp